From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Also known as||No Holds Barred (NHB), Anything Goes|
|Country of origin||Brazil|
Vale tudo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvale ˈtudo]; meaning "anything goes") are full-contact unarmed combat events, with a limited number of rules, that became popular in Brazil during the 20th century. Although combatants originally used a variety of different combat styles, Vale tudo, has been considered a combat sport by some observers.
Fighting sideshows, termed "vale tudo" or "anything goes", became popular in Brazilian circuses during the 1920s. Examples of such bouts were described in the Japanese-American Courier on October 4, 1928:
"One report from São Paulo declares that Jiu Jitsu is truly an art and that in an interesting exhibition in the side tent to the big circus a Bahian negro of monstrous dimensions met his waterloo at the hands of a diminutive Japanese wrestler. The negro was an expert at Capoeira, an old South American style of fighting, but after putting the Japanese on his back and trying to kick his head... the little oriental by the use of a Jiu Jitsu hold threw the Bahian and after a short struggle he was found sitting on the silent frame of the massive opponent."
However, this circus term did not enter popular use until 1959-1960, when it was used to describe the style-versus-style bouts featured in a Rio television show called Heróis do Ringue (Ring-Heroes). The matchmakers and hosts of the show included members of the Gracie family, and the participants were all legitimate practitioners of their styles. One night, João Alberto Barreto (later a referee for UFC 1) was competing against a man trained in free fight. Barreto caught his opponent in an armbar. The man refused to tap out. Barreto subsequently broke the man's arm. Consequently, this show was soon replaced by another show, Telecatch, that featured more theatrical contests. Heroes of Telecatch included the Italian Ted Boy Marino.
From 1960 onwards, vale tudo would remain an underground sub-culture, with most of the fights taking place in martial arts dojos or small gymnasiums. The vale tudo sub-culture was mainly based in Rio de Janeiro, but many fights also took place in the northern region, as well as the southern region and the Bahia state, where Capoeira is prevalent. The scene in Rio de Janeiro focused mainly on the intense rivalry between Brazilian jiu-jitsu and Luta Livre, whereas fights in the other regions featured more diverse martial arts competing in the events.
Rorion Gracie of the famous Gracie family would eventually emigrate to the United States and introduced vale tudo to a new market when he founded the UFC in 1993. The enormous success of the UFC created a vale tudo explosion around the world, particularly in Japan, as well as a resurgence and newfound popularity back in Brazil. This would result in the creation of two vale tudo promotions, the WVC and the IVC, which featured prominently in the 1990s and were also televised on Brazilian TV and Pay-Per-View.
Both promotions were based out of the Brazilian financial capital of Sao Paulo and launched the careers of many of today's MMA stars. But after the state of Sao Paulo prohibited vale tudo fights from being a sanctioned sport, both promotions went into decline and have not promoted a show since 2002. With the newer promotions abandoning vale tudo rules in favor of the safer mixed martial arts rules that have gained athletic sanctioning in the United States, vale tudo effectively went back to its underground roots. Vale tudo events are still taking place in great number around Brazil. Due to the violent and bloody nature of vale tudo fights, these underground events sometimes cause controversy in the media.
Critics argue that vale tudo shows should all adopt the much safer mixed martial arts rules that have developed and gained athletic sanctioning in the United States. Supporters of vale tudo counter that the sanctioned mixed martial arts style that developed in the United States is now so vastly different from true vale tudo, that it should be treated as an entirely different sport, just as kickboxing, sanctioned in United States due to its safer rules is considered different from Muay Thai, for example.
Vale tudo uses techniques from many styles including (Brazilian jiu jitsu, muay thai, sambo, judo, boxing and wrestling.)
- Carlos Gracie
- Helio Gracie
- Carlson Gracie
- Rickson Gracie
- Rorion Gracie
- Royce Gracie
- Renzo Gracie
- Mitsuyo Maeda
- Masahiko Kimura
- Ivan Gomes
- Valdemar Santana
- Rei Zulu
- Marco Ruas
- Wanderlei Silva
- Sergio Batarelli
- Frederico Lapenda
- Rudimar Fedrigo
- Evangelista Santos
- Renato Sobral
- Mauricio Rua
- Anderson Silva
MIXED MARTIAL ARTS (MMA) HISTORY
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Also known as
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full contact combat sport that allows a wide variety of fighting techniques and skills, from a mixture of martial arts traditions and non-traditions, to be used in competitions. The rules allow the use of both striking as well as grappling techniques, both while standing and on the ground. Such competitions allow martial artists of different backgrounds to compete.
The roots of mixed martial arts can be traced back to various mixed style contests that took place throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s. Modern MMA competition emerged in 1993 with the founding of the Ultimate Fighting Championship, although professional MMA events had been held in Japan by Shooto starting back in 1989. Originally organized with the intention of finding the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat situations, competitors were pitted against one another with minimal rules for safety. Later promoters adopted many additional rules aimed at increasing safety for competitors and to promote mainstream acceptance of the sport.
While different forms of unorganized, no-rules, unarmed combat predate history, civilization, and the human species itself (apes have been observed engaging in hand-to-hand combats), the earliest documented, organized, minimal-rules fighting event was the ancient Greek pankration, which was introduced into the Olympic Games in 648 B.C. Greek pankration later inspired the more violent Etruscan and Romanpancratium, an event showcased at the Roman Colosseum. Even as late as the Early Middle Ages, statues were put up in Rome and other cities to honour remarkable pankratiasts of Rome.
No-holds-barred reportedly took place in the late 1880s when wrestlers representing a huge range of fighting styles, including various catch wrestling styles, Greco-Roman wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. In the USA the first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan, then heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, Greco-Roman wrestling champion William Muldoon, and was slammed to the mat in two minutes. The next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European Greco-Roman wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. Reportedly, Roeber suffered a fractured cheekbone in this bout, but was able to get Fitzsimmons down on the mat, where he applied an armlock and made the boxer submit. In Europe, around the 19th century, the Italian Giovanni Raicevich, skilled in Greco-Roman wrestling was defeated by Akitaro Ono, a Japanese heavyweight fighter skilled in Jujutsu, Judo, and Sumo, throwing him on the mat by one-arm shoulder throw. In 1936, heavyweight boxing contender Kingfish Levinsky and veteran professional wrestler Ray Steele competed in a mixed match, which Steele won in 35 seconds. Another early example of mixed martial arts combat was the martial art of Bartitsu, founded in London in 1899, which was the first martial art known to have combined Asian and European fighting styles, and which saw MMA-style contests throughout England, pitting European and Japanese champions against representatives of various European wrestling styles.
Mixed style contests such as boxing vs. jujutsu were popular entertainment throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s. In Japan these contests were known as merikan, from the Japanese slang for "American [fighting]". Merikan contests were fought under a variety of rules including points decision, best of three throws or knockdowns, and victory via knockout or submission.
In the late 1960s to early 1970s the concept of combining the elements of multiple martial arts was popularized in the west by Bruce Lee via his system philosophy of Jeet Kune Do. Lee believed that "the best fighter is not a Boxer, Karate or Judo man. The best fighter is someone who can adapt to any style, to be formless, to adopt an individual's own style and not following the system of styles." In 2004 UFC President Dana White would call Lee the "father of mixed martial arts." To this day, Bruce Lee is known as "father of modern mixed martial arts".
The history of modern MMA competition can be traced to mixed style contests throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s; the Gracie family's vale tudo martial arts tournaments in Brazil starting in the 1920s; and early mixed martial arts-themed professional wrestling matches (known as Ishu Kakutougi Sen in Japan) hosted by Antonio Inoki in Japan in the 1970s.
Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) competitions were introduced in the United States with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993 . The sport gained international exposure and widespread publicity in United States in 1993, when Brazilian Jiu-Jitsufighter Royce Gracie handily won the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament, subduing three challengers in a total of just five minutes, sparking a revolution in the martial arts. Meanwhile Japan had its Shooto also called Vale Tudo in 1985 where fighter Rickson Gracie won the tournaments in 1994 and 1995, which continued interest in the sport resulting in the creation of the Pride Fighting Championships in 1997, where again Rickson participated and won.
The movement that led to the creation of the UFC, and Pride was rooted in two interconnected subcultures. First were the vale tudo events in Brazil, followed by the Japanese shoot wrestling shows. Vale tudo began in the 1920s with the "Gracie challenge" issued by Carlos Gracie and Hélio Gracie and upheld later on by descendants of the Gracie family. In Japan in the 1970s, a series of mixed martial arts matches were hosted by Antonio Inoki, a former star of New Japan Pro Wrestling; this inspired the shoot-style movement in Japanese professional wrestling, which eventually led to the formation of the first mixed martial arts organizations, such as Shooto, which was formed in 1985. The International Sport Combat Federation (ISCF) was created in May 1999 as the worlds first "MMA" Sanctioning body. This ushered in a new era of Mixed Martial Arts where it is once again recognized as a true sport worldwide. This was aided by certified officials and well developed rules that were built up from the ISCF's sister organization for kickboxing, the International Kickboxing Federation's (IKF) long developed system.
The sport reached a new peak of popularity in North America in the December 2006 rematch between then UFC light heavyweight champion Chuck Liddell and former champion Tito Ortiz, rivaling the PPV sales of some of the biggest boxing events of all time, and helping the UFC's 2006 PPV gross surpass that of any promotion in PPV history. In 2007, Zuffa LLC, the owners of the UFC MMA promotion, bought Japanese rival MMA brand Pride FC, merging the contracted fighters under one promotionand drawing comparisons to the consolidation that occurred in other sports, such as the AFL-NFL Merger in American football.
Evolution of fighters
As a result of an increased number of competitors, organized training camps, information sharing, and modern kinesiology, the understanding of the combat-effectiveness of various strategies has been greatly improved. UFC commentator Joe Rogan has claimed that martial arts have evolved more in the ten years following 1993 than in the preceding 700 years.
"During his reign atop the sport in the late 1990s he was the prototype — he could strike with the best strikers; he could grapple with the best grapplers; his endurance was second to none. "
In the early 1990s, three styles stood out for their effectiveness in competition: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, amateur wrestling and submission wrestling. This may be attributable in part to the grappling emphasis of the aforementioned styles, which were, perhaps due to the scarcity of mixed martial arts competitions prior to the early 90s, unknown to most practitioners of striking-based arts. Fighters who combined amateur wrestling with striking techniques found success in the standing portion of a fight, whilst Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu stylists had a distinct advantage on the ground: those unfamiliar with submission grappling proved to be unprepared to deal with its submission techniques. Shoot wrestling practitioners offered a balance of amateur wrestling ability and catch wrestling-based submissions, resulting in a well-rounded skillset. The shoot wrestlers were especially successful in Japan. As competitions became more and more common, those with a base in striking became more competitive as they acquainted themselves with takedowns and submission holds, leading to notable upsets against the then dominant grapplers. Subsequently, those from the varying grappling styles added striking techniques to their arsenal. This overall development of increased cross-training resulted in the fighters becoming increasingly multi-dimensional and well-rounded in their skills. The changes were demonstrated when the original UFC champion Royce Gracie who had defeated many opponents using Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fought the then UFC Welterweight Champion Matt Hughes at UFC 60 and was defeated by a TKO from 'ground-and-pound'.
The rules for modern mixed martial arts competitions have changed significantly since the early days of vale tudo, Japanese shoot wrestling, and UFC 1, and even more from the historic style of pankration. As the knowledge about fighting techniques spread among fighters and spectators, it became clear that the original minimalist rule systems needed to be amended. The main motivations for these rule changes were protection of the health of the fighters, the desire to shed the image of "barbaric, no rules, fighting-to-the-death" matches, and being recognised as a sport.
The new rules included the introduction of weight classes; as knowledge about submissions spread, differences in weight had become a significant factor. There are 9 different weight classes. These 9 weight classes include flyweight (up to 125 lb / 57 kg), bantamweight (126–135 lb / 61 kg), featherweight (136–145 lb / 66 kg), lightweight (146–155 lb / 70 kg), welterweight (156–170 lb / 77 kg), middleweight (171–185 lb / 84 kg), light heavyweight (186–205 lb / 93 kg), heavyweight (206–265 lb / 120 kg), and some organizations even go on to have a super heavyweight which is anything heavier than 265 pounds (120 kg).
Small, open-fingered gloves were introduced to protect fists in punches, reduce the occurrence of cuts (and stoppages due to cuts) and encourage fighters to use their hands for striking to allow more captivating matches. Time limits were established to avoid long fights with little action where competitors conserved their strength. Matches without time limits also complicated the airing of live events. The time limits in most professional fights are three 5 minute rounds, and championship fights are normally five 5 minute rounds. Similar motivations produced the "stand up" rule, where the referee can stand fighters up if it is perceived that both are resting on the ground or not advancing toward a dominant position.
Gloves were first mandatory in Japan's Shooto promotion and were later adopted by the UFC as it developed into a regulated sport. Most professional fights have the fighters wear 4 oz gloves with little protection, whereas amateurs are required to wear a slightly heavier 6 oz glove for somewhat little more protection for the hands and wrist. In the U.S., state athletic and boxing commissions have played a crucial role in the introduction of additional rules because they oversee MMA in a similar way to boxing. Smaller shows may use more restrictive rules because they have less experienced fighters. In Japan and Europe, there is no regulating authority over competitions, so these organizations have greater freedom in rule development and event structure.
Official sporting associations in traditional martial arts have been working to reduce injuries by emulating amateur boxing, requiring protective equipment such as headgear. However, newer forms of competitive fighting have emerged to recreate the original spirit of the traditional events by minimizing or even eliminating protective gear. MMA is growing in popularity, and creates more scoring opportunities by allowing the use of both the hands and the feet. Some forms also allow for elbow and knee strikes. The more recently developed mixed martial arts fighting allows any maneuver except eye gouging, hair pulling, groin strikes, and finger bending .
Many U.S. states have a "no elbow policy" for amateurs to help protect the young fighters from serious injury by cuts or concussions. The use of a "12-6" elbow has been banned by several organizations along with restrictions on the use of knees to a downed opponent, dictated by one person having a hand, arm, or knee on the ground. Knees to the head of a grounded opponent is allowed in Japanese MMA. Headbutts are also widely prohibited because they require little effort and can quickly open cuts that might cause a fight to be stopped due to injury rather than because there is a winner.
Victory in a match is normally gained either by the judges' decision after an allotted amount of time has elapsed, a stoppage by the referee (for example if a competitor can not defend himself intelligently) or the fight doctor (due to an injury), a submission, by a competitor's cornerman throwing in the towel, or by knockout.
Knockout (KO): as soon as a fighter becomes unconscious due to strikes, his opponent is declared the winner. As MMA rules allow ground fighting, the fight is stopped to prevent further injury to an unconscious fighter.
Submission: a fighter may admit defeat during a match by:
- a tap on the opponent's body or mat/floor
- a verbal announcement/verbal tap
Technical Knockout (TKO)
- Referee stoppage: The ref may stop a match in progress if:
- a fighter becomes dominant to the point where the opponent can not intelligently defend himself and is taking a lot of damage
- a fighter appears to be unconscious from a submission hold or due to a strike
- a fighter appears to have a significant injury such as a cut or a broken bone
Doctor Stoppage: the referee will call for a time out if a fighter's ability to continue is in question as a result of apparent injuries, such as a large cut. The ring doctor will inspect the fighter and stop the match if the fighter is deemed unable to continue safely, rendering the opponent the winner. However, if the match is stopped as a result of an injury from illegal actions by the opponent, either a disqualification or no contest will be issued instead.
Corner stoppage: a fighter's corner men may announce defeat on the fighter's behalf by throwing in the towel during the match in progress or between rounds.
Decision: if the match goes the distance, then the outcome of the bout is determined by three judges. The judging criteria are organization-specific.
Forfeit: a fighter or his representative may forfeit a match prior to the beginning of the match, thereby losing the match.
Disqualification: a "warning" will be given when a fighter commits a foul or illegal action or does not follow the referee's instruction. Three warnings will result in a disqualification. Moreover, if a fighter is injured and unable to continue due to a deliberate illegal technique from his opponent, the opponent will be disqualified.
No Contest: in the event that both fighters commit a violation of the rules, or a fighter is unable to continue due to an injury from an accidental illegal technique, the match will be declared a "No Contest".
Most fighters found out that the best combination was to train in a few grappling styles such as Western Freestyle and Greco-Roman Wrestling, Brazilian Jiujitsu, judo, Sambo, or Submission Wrestling and a couple of striking arts such as Western boxing and Muay Thai.
The need for flexibility in the legs combined with durability prompted the creation of various fighting shorts brands, which then spawned a range of mixed martial arts clothing and casual wear available to the public.
The techniques utilized in mixed martial arts competition generally fall into two categories: striking techniques (such as kicks, knees and punches) and grappling techniques (such as clinch holds, pinning holds, submission holds, sweeps, takedowns andthrows). Although sanctioning bodies such as the IFFCF have rules and regulations for MMA, rules may vary between promotions. In many promotions they have adopted the unified rule system that the most popular promotion UFC has established. While the legality of some techniques (such as elbow strikes, headbutts and spinal locks) may vary, there is a near universal ban on techniques such as biting, strikes to the groin, eye-gouging, fish-hooking and small joint manipulation.
Today, mixed martial artists must cross-train in a variety of styles to counter their opponent's strengths and remain effective in all the phases of combat. For instance, a stand-up fighter will have little opportunity to use their skills against a submission artistwho has also trained in take downs. Many traditional disciplines remain popular as ways for a fighter to improve aspects of their game.
Most 'traditional' martial arts have a specific focus and these arts may be trained to improve in that area. Popular disciplines of each type include:
- Stand-up: Various forms of boxing, kickboxing/Muay Thai and forms of full contact karate are trained to improve footwork, elbowing, kicking, kneeing and punching.
- Clinch: Freestyle, Greco-Roman wrestling, Sambo and Judo are trained to improve clinching, takedowns and throws, while Muay Thai is trained to improve the striking aspect of the clinch.
- Ground: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, shoot wrestling, catch wrestling, Judo and Sambo are trained to improve ground control and position, as well as to achieve submission holds, and defend against them.
Some styles have been adapted from their traditional form, such as boxing stances which lack effective counters to leg kicks and the muay thai stance which is poor for defending against takedowns due to the static nature, or Judo techniques which must be adapted for No Gi competition. It is common for a fighter to train with multiple coaches of different styles or an organized fight team to improve various aspects of their game at once. Cardiovascular conditioning, speed drills, strength training and flexibility are also important aspects of a fighter's training. Some schools advertise their styles as simply "mixed martial arts", which has become a genre in itself; but the training will still often be split in to different sections.
While mixed martial arts was initially practiced almost exclusively by competitive fighters, this is no longer the case. As the sport has become more mainstream and more widely taught, it has become accessible to wider range of practitioners of all ages. Proponents of this sort of training argue that it is safe for anyone, of any age, with varying levels of competitiveness.
The following terms describe hybrid styles a fighter may use, over the course of a fight, to achieve victory. While some fighters have tallied notable victories by striking, ground-and-pound as well as submission throughout their careers, most fighters will rely on a smaller number of techniques while adopting a style that plays to their strengths.
A sprawl-and-brawler is usually a boxer, kickboxer, Thai boxer or full contact karate fighter who has trained in wrestling to avoid takedowns to keep the fight standing. Often, these fighters will study submission wrestling to avoid being forced into submission, should they find themselves on the ground. This style can be deceptively different from traditional kickboxing styles, since sprawl-and-brawlers must adapt their techniques to incorporate takedown and ground fighting defense.
Clinch fighting and dirty boxing are tactics consisting of using a clinch hold to prevent the opponent from moving away into more distant striking range, while also attempting takedowns and striking the opponent using knees, stomps, elbows, and punches. The clinch is often utilized by wrestlers that have added components of the striking game (typically boxing), and Muay Thai fighters.
Wrestlers may use clinch fighting as a way to neutralize the superior striking skills of a stand-up fighter or to prevent takedowns by a superior ground fighter. The clinch of a Muay Thai fighter is often used to improve the accuracy of knees and elbows by physically controlling the position of the opponent.
Ground-and-pound is a ground fighting tactic consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top, or dominant position, and then striking the opponent, primarily with fists and elbows. Ground-and-pound is also used as a precursor to attempting submission holds.
This style is used by wrestlers or other fighters well-versed in submission defense and skilled at takedowns. They take the fight to the ground, maintain a grappling position, and strike until their opponent submits or is knocked out. Although not a traditional style of striking, the effectiveness and reliability of ground-and-pound has made it a popular tactic as it was first demonstrated as an effective technique by UFC and Pride grand prix champion, Mark Coleman, and refined later by Fedor Emelianenko.Today, strikes on the ground are an essential part of a fighter's training.
Apart from being a general martial arts term, submission grappling is also a reference to the ground fighting tactic consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold, forcing the opponent to submit. While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions. If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard, whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground.
There are numerous MMA teams based throughout the World that provide team camps and training for professional fighters. Some of these teams and camps include American Top Team, Chute Boxe Academy, Xtreme Couture, Team Nogueira, the Black House Gym, and the American Kickboxing Academy, these being some of the most famous.
"Female fighting has been slow to start and finding our place amongst the male warriors has sometimes been a struggle. In 2001, when there was little interest in women's MMA. Thanks to many people, female fighters have come a long way and you will now find most MMA shows in America and Japan feature women's MMA matches.", Debi Purcell, founder of the website fightergirls.com, on the history of female competition.
The sport of mixed martial arts has female athletes. Female fights are more prominent in Japan in promotions such as the all-female Valkyrie and Smackgirl (now known as JEWELS) since their first event in 2000. However, there are few professional mixed martial arts organizations in the United States that invite women to compete. Although people have the perception that women are not as prominent as men in mixed martial arts, there has been a growing awareness of women in the sport due to popular female fighters and personalities such as Megumi Fujii and Gina Carano. Carano quickly became the face of women's MMA after appearing in the now defunct EliteXC MMA promotion; this was furthered by her appearances in the remake of the hit (US version) TV show American Gladiators. Other popular female fighters include Strikeforce's Female 145 lb. Champion Cristiane "Cyborg" Santos, Tara LaRosa, Megumi Fujii and Rosi Sexton.
Strikeforce became the first major promotion in the U.S to have a female fight act as the main event on August 15, 2009. The fight between Carano and Santos attracted 856,000 viewers. Santos made history with her victory over Carano as she became the first ever Strikeforce Women's 145 lb Champion. Santos now trains at The Arena in San Diego for her upcoming Strikeforce fights.
Mixed Martial Arts competitions have changed dramatically since the first Ultimate Fighting Championship in 1993. The overall injury rate in MMA competitions is now similar to other combat sports, including boxing.. Incidence of Injury in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Competitions. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, CSSI, 136-142.
MMA is dangerous and its fighters are put at a serious risk of injury each time they enter the Octagon. MMA fighters are given more care and precaution than athletes in any other sports organization in the world. With supervised fights, pre and post‐fight MRIs, four ringside doctors and two ambulances in case of emergency at each event and mandatory steroid testing – these organizations reach the highest levels of safety and quality in all aspects of the sport. Safer than boxing, no organization fighter has ever suffered a serious injury or death..
Although deaths occur in Muay Thai, as in boxing, sprained fingers and toes, cuts and bruises on the head, face, and neck, and bloody noses are the more typical injuries.
While competition in the sport is occasionally depicted as brutal by the media, there had never been a death or crippling injury in a sanctioned event in North America until the death of Sam Vasquez on November 30, 2007. Vasquez collapsed shortly after being knocked out by Vince Libardi in the third round of an October 20, 2007 fight at the Toyota Center in Houston, Texas. Vasquez had two separate surgeries to remove blood clots from his brain, and shortly after the second operation suffered a major stroke and never regained consciousness. While questions have been asked about Vasquez's health before his final bout, no firm indications of pre-existing problems have yet surfaced. This was the third verified fatality in MMA. The first was the 1998 death of Douglas Dedge in an unsanctioned fight in Ukraine. There are unconfirmed reports that Dedge had a medical pre-existing condition. The second was the 2005 death of a 35-year old man only identified as Lee in South Korea. This took place in an unsanctioned event in a restaurant called Gimme Five.
A study by Johns Hopkins University concluded, "the overall injury rate [excluding injury to the brain] in MMA competitions is now similar to other combat sports [involving striking], including boxing. Knockout rates are lower in MMA competitions than in boxing. This suggests a reduced risk of traumatic brain injury in MMA competitions when compared to other events involving striking."
According to The Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, MMA must continue to be supervised by properly trained medical professionals and referees to ensure fighter safety in the future.
HISTÓRIA DO VALE-TUDO
O Vale-Tudo nasceu dos desafios do Jiu-Jitsu, popularizado por Hélio Gracie (atualmente com uns 90 anos) no Brasil, mais precisamente na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Gracie aprendeu o Jiu-Jitsu em 1928 com o introdutor da modalidade no país, um conde japonês chamado Koma. De complexão franzina, Gracie foi atraído pela luta ao descobrir que poderia vencer pessoas bem mais fortes do que ele, com os golpes do Jiu-Jitsu.
"Foi a partir desta constatação que eu resolvi criar um Jiu-Jitsu brasileiro, dando ênfase à parte técnica, com golpes alavancados, como a chave-de-braço, onde a força é o que menos conta", afirma Gracie, que hoje vive mais nos Estados Unidos, do que no Brasil. Ciente da superioridade do Jiu-Jitsu sobre outras lutas, Gracie criou torneios de desafios, chamados de Vale-Tudo, dos quais participavam judocas, capoeiristas e boxeadores, cada um procurando impor a sua modalidade.
Depois de um período de obscuridade, o Vale-Tudo voltou a popularizar-se quando o filho de Hélio Gracie, Rorion, que vive em Los Angeles, assim como seus irmãos Relson, Rickson e Royce, todos campeões de Jiu-Jitsu, criaram o Ultimate Fighting, como é conhecido o torneio de Vale-Tudo nos Estados Unidos. Nele, o Jiu-Jitsu brasileiro dos Gracies tornou-se uma luta quase invencível. Os vídeos dos torneios norte-americanos foram vendidos em todo o mundo, inclusive no Brasil, motivando o aparecimento de milhares de academias da modalidade e renovando a popularidade do Vale-Tudo.
Dos 4 primeiros UFC's em forma de torneio o representante do Gracie Jiu-Jitsu; Royce Gracie, venceu 3. Os lutadores que não tinham nenhuma noção de luta no chão foram se aperfeiçoando, dificultando o reinado absoluto de Royce. O primeiro lutador que teve a percepção de que não bastava apenas Ter uma especialidade no vale-tudo foi o brasileiro Marco Ruas. Com a filosofia do "Se você agarra eu soco e chuto. Se você soca e chuta eu agarro" Ruas foi campeão da sétima edição do UFC.
Muitos lutadores brasileiros passaram pelo UFC, alguns obtendo sucesso e outros não. E nesse meio tempo foram criados vários eventos de Vale-Tudo com menor expressão no mundo inteiro.
O Reinado do Ultimate Fighting Champioship como melhor e maior evento de Vale-Tudo no mundo terminou no dia 11 de outubro de 1997, com a criação do PRIDE Fighting Champioship. Com bastante dinheiro para contratar os melhores lutadores do mundo , o PRIDE que é realizado em ringues no Japão, é até hoje o principal evento de Vale Tudo do mundo, deixando o UFC apenas um pouquinho para atrás.
Antigamente no vale-tudo literalmente valia tudo mesmo, era sem regras, justamente para não inibir o praticante de determinada arte marcial de mostrar suas abilidades. O que o tornava muito violento e sangrento, muitas vezes até pondo em risco a integridade física do atleta.
Mas felizmente os organizadores com o tempo foram incluindo novas regras que protegem o atleta e o espetáculo. Chamando assim mais a atenção do público.
O Vale Tudo ainda é visto com maus olhos pela sociedade justamente pela falta de informação. Muitos leigos ainda acham que no Vale Tudo literalmente vale tudo, o que não é verdade. Tanto é que, no Japão, os campeões do PRIDE Rodrigo Minotauro e Wanderlei Silva não podem sair na rua por causa do assédio dos fãs, já no Brasil eles na passam de ilustres desconhecidos.
HISTÓRIA DAS ATES MARCIAIS MISTAS OU MMA
Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.
As artes marciais mistas (frequentemente conhecidas sob seus acrônimos em inglês: MMA - Mixed martial arts) são artes marciais que incluem tanto golpes de luta em pé quanto técnicas de luta no chão. As artes marciais mistas podem ser praticadas como o esporte de contato em uma maneira regular ou em um torneio em que dois concorrentes tentam derrotar um ao outro. Usam uma escala grande de técnicas permitidas de artes marciais, como golpes utilizando os punhos, pés, cotovelos, joelhos, além de técnicas de imobilização, como lances e alavancas.
Algumas organizações que organizam torneios de artes marciais misturadas são Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) e PRIDE Fighting Championships. Em opinião popular, os termos artes marciais misturadas e vale-tudo tem o mesmo significado. Entretanto, as diferenças entre estes termos devem ser reconhecidas e ambos devem ser distinguidos do termo full contact ("contato pleno").
A história das artes marciais mistas
O pankration era um estilo antigo de combate sem arma. Os gregos antigos introduziram esta disciplina nos Jogos Olímpicos em 648 d.C. Algumas exposições públicas de combates ocorreram no fim do século 19. Representavam estilos diferentes de luta, incluindo jujutsu, luta greco-romana e outras lutas em torneios e desafios naEuropa inteira. Depois da Primeira Guerra Mundial, a luta nascia outra vez em duas correntes principais. A primeira corrente era uma competição real; a segunda, começou a depender mais na coreografia e nas exposições grandiosas de público que resultou na luta profissional.
As artes marciais misturadas modernas têm suas raizes em dois acontecimentos: os acontecimentos de vale-tudo no Brasil, e o shootwrestling japonês. Nesse tempo eles foram mutuamente ligados, mas foram separados. O vale-tudo começou na terceira década do século XX, quando Carlos Gracie convidou cada competidor de modalidades de luta diferentes. Isso era chamado de "Desafio do Gracie". Mais tarde, Hélio Gracie e a família Gracie mantiveram este desafio. No Japão, década de 80, Antonio Inoki organizou uma série de lutas de artes marciais misturadas. Eram as forças que produziram o shootwrestling e eles, mais tarde, causaram a formação de uma das primeiras organizações japonesas de artes marciais misturadas conhecida como shooto. As artes marciais misturadas obtiveram grande popularidade nos Estados Unidos em1993, quando Rorion Gracie e outros sócios criaram o primeiro torneio de UFC. Em 1997, no Japão, o interesse por este esporte resultou na criação do PRIDE Fighting Championships.
Em 2001 o ex-empresário de boxe Dana White convenceu os amigos de infância Lorenzo e Frank Fertitta, donos da rede de Cassinos Station, a comprarem o UFC. Os três fundaram uma empresa chamada Zuffa e compraram o UFC por 2 milhões de dólares. Após várias mudanças nas regras conseguiram legalizar o esporte em praticamente todos os estados americanos. Em 2007 compraram também o Pride, levando vários atletas do Japão para os EUA e tranformando o UFC na maior organização de MMA do planeta. Hoje o UFC tem um preço estimado de mais de 1 bilhão de dólares e domina mais de 90% do mercado mundial de MMA.